The idea of an “Alpha” pair originates from the 1947 “Expressions Studies on Wolves" by Schenkel and was further popularized by L. David Mech’s "The Wolf: Ecology and Behavior of an Endangered Species" written in1968 and published in 1970.
We now know this is not how wolves behave in nature, the aformentioned studies based on the observation of captive packs of unrelated wolves. Even Mech revoked his promotion of the “Alpha theory” as early as 1999 (alt. source).
The term ‘alpha’ suggests the winning of power through contest or battle, however the lead wolves in most wolf packs achieve their status by breeding, then their pups become part of their pack. More accurate descriptors for this lead, breeding pair are “breeding male/female,” “male/female parent,” or even “adult male/female.”
Dogs Aren’t Wolves
Dogs have diverged significantly from wolves in the last 15,000 years. Ancestral wolves evolved as hunters and now generally live in packs consisting most often of family members (Mech 2000). Pack members cooperate to hunt and to take care of offspring. In a given year, generally only the alpha male and alpha female mate, so that the resources of the entire pack can be focused on their one litter. Dogs, on the other hand, evolved as scavengers rather than hunters (Coppinger and Coppinger 2002). Those who were the least fearful, compared to their human-shy counterparts, were best able to survive off the trash and waste of humans and reproduce in this environment. Currently, free-roaming dogs live in small groups rather than cohesive packs, and in some cases spend much of their time alone (MacDonald and Carr 1995). They do not generally cooperate to hunt or to raise their offspring, and virtually all males and females have the opportunity to mate (Boitani et al. 1995)
Honestly, how can anyone think these two need to be treated the same?
Well, the logic was “dogs are descended from wolves, wolves live in packs with a hierarchy that’s kept in check by an aggressive alpha, therefore humans need to dominate their dogs if they want them to behave.”
Obviously, we know better now.
Dogs don’t want to fight with us for ‘dominance,’ they want to get along. The one causing adversity in the relationship would be the owner trying to push ‘dominance’ on their dog, would you enjoy a relationship that involved being bullied near constantly?
Neither would your dog.
To reiterate, dominance theory is the idea that humans need to force their dog into submission with the use of aggression in order to get them to behave.
Dominant-submissive relationships form to determine who has priority access to particular resources, these sort of relationships usually exist only when the dominant party is around to guard the desired resources.
Availability of resources isn’t something we have to worry about when raising a dog, at least not in the sense that we need to compete with our canine companions for them.
Why It Doesn’t Work
A huge flaw with dominance theory is that it fails to address the reasons for the problem behavior(s). Dominance training punishes the behavior without questioning why the dog is acting out in the first place.
Aggression, for example, is often a result of fear, anxiety, or insecurity. In situations like this in particular dominance training would be counterproductive, if your dog is fearful and you react with confrontational behavior (“alpha rolls,” hitting, staring down, etc) chances are you will only worsen the dogs fear and cause him/her to respond with defensive aggression.
Dangers of Dominance Theory
Dominance training can increase aggression, resulting in painful injury for you and an unhappy dog. Unsurprisingly, if you’re aggressive towards your dog your dog will be aggressive to you (“Treat people how you want to be treated.” not exactly the same, but still - kindergarten concept, people!).
It’s common knowledge among professionals that dominance theory is outdated and harmful.
But The Dog Whisperer said-
- Alpha Status, Dominance, and Division of Labor in Wolf Packs
- Comments on “Alpha” Dominance Theory
- De-Bunking the “Alpha Dog” Theory
- Forget About Being Alpha in Your Pack
- Misconceptions of the Mythical Alpha Do
- New Study Finds Popular “Alpha Dog” Training Techniques Can Cause More Harm than Good
- Position Statement on the Use of Dominance Theory in Behavior Modification of Animals
- Whatever Happened to the Term ALPHA Wolf?
This wasn’t posted by The Onion so you know it’s a real story.
#YES YES YES YES THIS IS HOW GOOD BOOKS SHOULD LOOK #i understand it when people hate cracked spines #but anybody that says a battered and falling apart book is sad #and thinks that’s not how you love a book #is talking shit #i love books and they look good like this #they are meant to be read and passed around and get crushed in bags because you can’t leave the house without them #you’re meant to dog ear the pages you love and underline in pencil and stick in stickynotes #if you want pristine you should buy an e-reader #because this is how you experience a book
i applaud you, dear tagger of the tags
It’s one thing if books fall apart from wear and use; that’s what happens to books you love. But don’t be careless with books, because they’re precious, and you want them to last as long as they possibly can. And don’t you dare be careless with MY books, because I will kill you.
Reminder that you can dog-ear pages, highlight passages, and make notes in e-readers too.
I’m over this kind of sanctimoniousness about how books should and shouldn’t be consumed. Books should be enjoyed whatever way you want to enjoy them. End of story.
breaking news: white cis boy drinks a can of monster energy drink, more at 11
breaking news: tumblr feminists continue to make jokes about cis white guys which in turn make them look exactly like the idea of man hating feminists that I thought we were trying to break away from
breaking news: I am a cis white boy and I was talking about myself, sit down child.
Sansa Stark meme || (1/9) Quotes
↳ “I am not your daughter, she thought. I am Sansa Stark, Lord Eddard’s daughter and Lady Catelyn’s, the blood of Winterfell.”
someone on facebook posted this intending it to be negative but instead it’s INCREDIBLE. go girl scouts
It always surprises me when people are shocked and scandalized by the Girl Scouts being a progressive, feminist organization.
In mean it basically started with Juliette Gordon Low getting offered leadership of an offshoot of the Boy Scouts but for girls, and being like “heck yeah let’s do our own scouting organization but with like equality and stuff.”
And look: 100 years later, still “like boy scouts but with equality and stuff.”
Im horrified that so many people read this and are like “omg this is evil!” while we read this and we’re like “omg this is AMAZING!”
Conservative republican pro lifers are the dman devil
It’s feminism. Delicious, delicious feminism.
Do you know how many boxes of girl scout cookies I bought this year? So many I needed to use my credit card.
Girl Scouts Forever
Anonymous asked: Can you explain why Europeans were much more technologically advanced than the indigenous populations of Africa? I mean, these cultures hadn't even invented sewage systems, which is something the Romans were able to design and implement in 800-735 BC (a long fucking time before "the white man" colonized it)... I mean fuck, without "the white man", they would probably still be in the fucking bronze age.
I don’t really know what kind of history books bigots like you read.
The Great Libraries of Timbuktu? The steel metallurgy of the Haya? Dentistry? Caesarean section? Premature neonatal care? Mathematics, architecture, engineering?
I know it’s hard for a racist like you who imagines “technological advancement” to be some kind of end-all-be-all, or proof of some “inherent intelligence”. I know, I know. It’s hard to imagine, but Europeans have been drawing knowledge from everyone around them since the dawn of time. What did you think ended the Dark Ages?
Your magical (read: white supremacist) idea of a purely 'white' Rome never existed.
The Minoan culture on the island of Crete between 1500-1700 B.C.E. had a highly developed waste management system. They had very advanced plumbing and designed places to dispose of organic wastes. Knossos, the capital city, had a central courtyard with baths that were filled and emptied using terra-cotta pipes. This piping system is similar to techniques used today. They had large sewers built of stone.”
In case you needed further clarification, neither the Minoans nor other (later) Greeks were ethnically uniform. They also had the first flush toilets, dating back to 18th century B.C.E. They had flushing toilets, with wooden seats and an overhead reservoir. The Minoan royals were the last group to use flushing toilets until the re-development of that technology in 1596.
Oh, and look the Mayans had indoor plumbing, acqueducts, and pressurized water too. I mean, you can ignore that the area Mayans lived in had little to few rivers, no lakes or standing water, nor other sources of running water, while simultaneously dealing with monsoons and flooding due to one of the heaviest yearly rainfalls in the Americas.
Classic Maya even used household water filters using locally abundant limestone carved into a porous cylinder, made so as to work in a manner strikingly similar to modern ceramic water filters.
Of course, by this time millenia later none of your precious “white people” had developed any methods besides shitting in pots.Continuing, the earliest archaeological record of an advanced system of drainage comes from the Indus Valley Civilization from around 3100 B.C.E in what is now Pakistan and North India. By 2500 B.C.E (almost 5,000 years ago), highly developed drainage system where wastewater from each house flowed into the main drain.All houses in the major cities of Harappa and Mohenjo−daro had access to water and drainage facilities. Waste water was directed to covered drains which lined the major streets directed to covered drains, which lined the major streets. Each home had its own private drinking well and its own private bathroom. The mains that carried wastewater to a cesspit were tall enough for people to walk through. Reservoirs, a central drainage system, fresh water pumped into the homes. Pools. Baths.It was made from bricks smoothened and joined together seamlessly. The expert masonry kept the sewer watertight. Drops at regular intervals acted like an automatic cleaning device.
Filters for solid waste.Sorry, what were the British doing up until like, 200 years ago? Shitting in the streets? Oh yeah.I mean, I could get into how by the Shang Dynasty (roughly 1600 B.C.E.), China had sophisticated plumbing including pressure inverted siphons.
Or into the city of Amarna, Ancient Egypt. Or Persepolis, Persia and the Achaemenids in 600 B.C.E.But, I mean, it sounds like the only one still in the Bronze Age is you.
This is the best and most comprehensive toilet-related smackdown I’ve ever had the good fortune to witness.
I love pirates because they have no concept on albeism. oh you have no leg? here have a peg leg. no hand?? well guess we gotta put a hook on that, give those sons of bitches a surprise. Blind in one eye, put an eyepatch on no one fucking cares, youre deaf??? go man the canons you glorious bastard.They dont care if youre disabled bcus as long as you can fuck shit up they literally dont fucking care.
Women are not aliens. Take away men, and we do not automatically lose our fire and intelligence and sex drive; we do not form hierarchical, static, insectlike societies that are dreadfully inefficient. We do not turn into a homogenous Thought Police culture where meat-eating is banned and men are burned in effigy every full moon. Women are not inherently passive or dominant, maternal, or vicious. We are all different. We are people.
A women-only world, it seems to me, would shine with the entire spectrum of human behavior: there would be capitalists and collectivists, hermits and clan members, sailors and cooks, idealists and tyrants; they would be generous and mean, smart and stupid, strong and weak; they would approach life bravely, fearfully and thoughtlessly. Some might still engage in fights, wars, and territorial squabbles; individuals and cultures would still display insanity and greed and indifference. And they would change and grow, just like anyone else. Because women are anyone else. We are more than half of humanity. We are not imitation people, or chameleons taking on protective male coloration, longing for the day when men go away and we can return to being our true, insectlike, static, vacuous selves. We are here, now. We are just like you.